What Does Rain Symbolize in the Bible?

The Bible often uses the image of rain to describe God’s provision for His people. He uses rain to water the earth and provides nourishment to it. Yet, rain also symbolizes other significant elements.

Table of Contents

  • The Symbol of Rain
  • God Our Provider
  • Judgment and Destruction
  • Rain as God’s Punishment
  • Renewal, Restoration, and Revival
  • Seasons Matter
  • Hebrew Words for Rain
  • Physical Need for Rain
  • Rain Can Symbolize the Anger of God
  • Rain Also Symbolizes God’s Blessing
  • Rain Reflects God’s Eternal Grace
  • God’s Rainbow of Promise
  • God’s Rainbow of Faithfulness and Hope
  • The Bottom Line

The Symbol of Rain

Rain is a powerful symbol that we can interpret in a variety of ways depending on the context in which it appears. Rain depicts God as our source of physical and spiritual life. Yet rain can also appear as God’s act of judgment against sin or wrongdoing.

Rain (or some form of it) appears over 100 times in the Bible. It holds special significance that is important to understand along our spiritual journey. What exactly does rain mean and symbolize throughout Scripture?

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God Our Provider

In the Old Testament, God is the provider who gives life-giving water to all living things (Genesis 2:5, ESV; Psalm 145:8, ESV). He is also seen as the source of refreshing rain for the land.

For example, the farmer’s hope in times of drought and hunger (Deuteronomy 11:10, ESV). In this way, God provides sustenance and refreshment in times of need.

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Judgment and Destruction

But what does rain symbolize when God sends a deluge over the whole land? Flooding rain is often associated with God’s judgment. Remember the story of Noah?

The Great Flood recorded in Genesis 7-8 resulted from God’s wrath against sin. God sent rain for 40 days and 40 nights (Genesis 7:12, ESV), which flooded the entire earth.

The floodwaters rose so high that they covered even mountaintops. All dry land disappeared and killed every living creature except those aboard Noah’s Ark. Even though rain is often associated with giving life, it can be destructive when wielded by a holy God. 

There are instances when God withheld rain from falling. Without water, nothing can grow or live and disease becomes rampant. We cannot survive without life-giving rain that God sends from His heavenly storehouses.

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Rain as God’s Punishment

But what does rain symbolize when it does not come? Withholding rain is often associated with God’s punishment, though not always complete destruction. When we see references to rain in the Bible, we need to keep in mind that it might not always be a positive thing. 

Here are some ways that rain appears in the negative sense that foretell God’s punishment:

  • Dark Clouds
  • Dry Ground
  • Rainy Season
  • Difficult Times
  • Hard Times
  • Dry Season
  • End Times
  • Last Time
  • Late Rain
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Renewal, Restoration, and Revival

Even though the Great Flood was God’s judgment, there were blessings when the pouring rain ended. When Noah’s ark landed after being afloat for almost a year, Noah sent out a dove to find out if there was any dry land.

After a few tries, the dove returned carrying an olive branch. Noah realized that his family could soon disembark and begin their new life together. The first thing they did was worship the Lord and begin planting a vineyard to make new wine. Revival!

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Seasons Matter

As Christians, we know that seasons not only occur in nature, but they occur in our own life journeys. Some seasons bring joy, while others usher in hardship. Yet each season holds God’s specific purpose.

Spring seasons bring new life and growth to every living thing. Fall brings the harvest of God’s plenty. And winter reminds us that rest is necessary for all other seasons to reach peak production. So let’s look at what rain symbolized in Scripture during various seasons.

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Hebrew Words for Rain

Three Hebrew words denote rains of different seasons. Yoreh or moreh refers to the early (or former) rain. Melqosh refers to the latter rain. Geshem refers to the winter rains.

The Early Rain

The rain of autumn commenced around late October or early November. These early rains (also called former rains) lasted for two months as heavy downpours. Each time I toured the Holy Land in November, cloudless beautiful days greeted our group. Perhaps climate change has altered this in our current times.

In God’s Word, we find these early rains in Hosea and Joel:

  • Yoreh: “Let us acknowledge the Lord; let us press on to acknowledge Him. As surely as the sun rises, He will appear; He will come to us like the winter rains, like the spring rains that water the earth” (Hosea 6:3, NIV).
  • Moreh: “Be glad, people of Zion, rejoice in the Lord your God, for He has given you the autumn rains because He is faithful. He sends you abundant showers, both autumn and spring rains, as before” (Joel 2:23, NIV).
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The Latter Rain

The rain of spring falls in March and April. These latter rains (melqosh) serve to mature the planted grain. No rain usually falls after April until the early rains in October or November:

  • “He will give the rain for your land in its season, the early rain and the later rain, that you may gather in your grain and your wine and your oil” (Deuteronomy 11:14, ESV).
  • “In the light of a king’s face there is life, and his favor is like the clouds that bring the spring rain” (Proverbs 16:15, ESV).
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The Winter Rain

The rain of winter commences in the middle of December and lasts through March. Heavy winter rain (geshem) often refers to an ominous, damaging, or destructive rain. There is no prolonged fair weather in Israel between October and March.

  • “And rain fell upon the earth forty days and forty nights” (Genesis 7:12, ESV).
  • “Then all the men of Judah and Benjamin assembled at Jerusalem within the three days. It was the ninth month, on the twentieth day of the month. And all the people sat in the open square before the house of God, trembling because of this matter and because of the heavy rain” (Ezra 10:9, ESV).
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Physical Need for Rain

Rainfall is vital to agriculture, which is also true throughout the Bible. Crops such as olives, dates, figs, wheat, barley, and grapes all thrive in the Middle East. Without sufficient rainfall, these crops would not be able to grow.

Livestock such as sheep and goats also enjoy rainfall, as they need water to drink and grass to eat. 

Not only is rainfall important for plants and animals, but it is also essential for every human being. Water is necessary for all life; without it, we would perish. This is especially true during the hot summer months.

Absent rainfall, rivers and wells run dry leaving no source of fresh water. Disease and death often result from unclean or stagnant water. We need rain and the clean water it brings to survive.

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Rain Can Symbolize the Anger of God

In 1 Kings 17, we see God’s anger. It says “Now Elijah…said to Ahab, “As the Lord, the God of Israel, lives, before whom I stand, there shall be neither dew nor rain these years, except by my word?” (1 Kings 17:1, NIV)

At this point, Elijah challenged Ahab (the king of Israel) because they had endured a 3-year drought. The prophet Elijah wanted to see if Ahab would turn back to God despite any other consequences.

First Kings 17 later reveals: “For this is what the Lord, the God of Israel, says: ‘The jar of flour will not be used up and the jug of oil will not run dry until the day the Lord sends rain on the land’” (1 Kings 17:14, NIV).

True to His Word, God sent a heavy downpour within 24 hours that amounted to seven years worth of rainfall. That’s a LOT of rain.

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Rain Also Symbolizes God’s Blessing

One of the most common ways rain shows up in the Bible is in reference to the blessings of God.

Psalm 147 offers a great example of this symbolism of rain. It represents the many blessings God bestows on His people. “Sing to the Lord with thanksgiving; make melody to our God on the lyre! He covers the heavens with clouds; He prepares rain for the earth; He makes grass grow on the hills” (Psalm 147:7-8, ESV).

Here are some ways that rain appears in the positive sense that reflect God’s blessing:

  • showers of blessing
  • good luck
  • abundant rain
  • rain dreams
  • appearance of the rainbow
  • sign of the Covenant
  • power of God
  • good land
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Rain Reflects God’s Eternal Grace

Isaiah 30 paints a beautiful picture of the eternal blessings believers will experience.

“And He will give rain for the seed with which you sow the ground, and bread, the produce of the ground, which will be rich and plenteous. And on every lofty mountain and every high hill there will be brooks running with water” (Isaiah 30:23, 25a, ESV).

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God’s Rainbow of Promise

After talking at length about the significance of rain, we would be remiss if we left out rainbows. Rainbows are one of the most popular symbols in connection with rain. Regardless of our current popular culture’s definition, what is God’s purpose for rainbows? What do they mean?

In ancient times, rainbows represented a sign from God. People would see the rainbow and remember God’s promise in Genesis:

“And God said, ‘This is the sign of the covenant that I make between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for all future generations: I have set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and the earth. When I bring clouds over the earth and the bow is seen in the clouds, I will remember my covenant that is between me and you and every living creature of all flesh. And the waters shall never again become a flood to destroy all flesh'” (Genesis 9:12-15, ESV).

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God’s Rainbow of Faithfulness and Hope

God’s famous appearance of the bow to Noah is not the only time rainbows slip into the pages of Scripture. Among other places, rainbows also appear in the Book of Revelation:

“At once I was in the Spirit, and there before me was a throne in heaven with someone sitting on it. And the one who sat there had the appearance of jasper and ruby. A rainbow that shone like an emerald encircled the throne” (Revelation 4:2-3, NIV).

We see here that the rainbow continues to be a symbol from God. The rainbow encircling the throne reminds believers of His faithfulness, mercy, and hope. Rainbows remind us that God is always with us regardless of the storms we experience.

The rainbow is one of nature’s most beautiful and awe-inspiring symbols from God. Apart from that vision in Revelation, rainbows symbolize hope, change, and new beginnings.

Every rainbow reminds us of God’s never-ending love and His covenant to never leave us or forsake us. No matter what storms we face in life, God is always with us and He will see us through to the other side.

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The Bottom Line

God promises that every believer receives an outpouring of the Holy Spirit. God’s Spirit in us provides the crucial discernment we need each day. In His strength, we can face every season of life we experience, whether stormy or temperate.

Rain represents many different elements in the Bible. Blessings and grace to judgment and punishment. The spiritual meaning of rain goes deep. Regardless of life’s storms, we trust that our heavenly Father holds the weather, our lives, and everything else in His mighty hands.

In the New Testament, Jesus also controlled the weather when He calmed a raging storm on the Sea of Galilee (Matthew 14:22-32, NIV). In every instance, God commands complete control over nature.

There is no element that He cannot command into submission. What comfort!

No matter what storms or challenges God’s children face in life, our God is always in control. Spring, Summer, Winter and Fall.

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Why Are Catholic and Protestant Bibles Different?

I did not know that Catholic and Protestant Bibles differed in their number of books until my early twenties when I began attending church regularly and digging deep into Scripture.

Why are Catholic and Protestant Bibles Different?

Naturally, my first question back then was, “Who’s right?” Thankfully, thirty years later God has matured that question into, “What does each Bible contain, how do they differ, and where did that difference originate?”

Let’s begin to answer these questions by first laying the groundwork for how scriptural books were determined and chosen as they appear in both Bibles.

The Biblical Canon

The biblical canon is the collection of scriptural books that God has given His people. They comprise the Bible we hold today, distinguished by their divine qualities, reception by God’s people, and apostolic connection (either by authorship or association).

Typical questions regarding the assembly of the biblical canon generally fall into two broad categories: historical and theological.

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Historical Questions

First-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus lists 22 Old Testament books that were accepted by the Jews. His list is confirmed by another first-century Jewish source, Philo of Alexandria, which includes exactly the same books as our present thirty-nine books of the Old Testament.

By the turn of the millennium, a Jewish canon of Scripture was largely in place and defined. In fact, there is not a single instance where a New Testament author cites a book as Scripture that is not contained in the current Old Testament canon.

In the New Testament canon, 22 out of the 27 books were widely accepted as Scripture by the second century. Even though disputes over some of the smaller books (such as 2 Peter, Jude, James, and 2-3 John) were not resolved until the fourth century, the core of the New Testament canon had already been in place for roughly two centuries.

Wartburg Castle, Germany
Wartburg Castle, Germany (2022 tour)

Theological Questions

Two questions lead the charge in this category. How do we know that the books included in the biblical canon were the right ones? How can we discern that a book is given by God?

Genesis 1 establishes that God created the heavens, earth, and everything in them. We know this to be true because we see God’s own attributes reflected in His creation (Psalm 19; Romans 1:20). Creation contains beauty, harmony, excellence, and power, all divine qualities we expect to find in God’s special revelation.

Believers also recognize the voice of the Lord in the Bible, as confirmed by Jesus: “My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me” (John 10:27, ESV).

Also under the theological umbrella is the fact that canonical books are written by God’s inspired prophets and apostles. Only those specifically commissioned by God can be His mouthpiece (Romans 1:2; 2 Peter 3:2; Mark 3:14-15; Matthew 10:20; Luke 10:16).

Martin Luther’s Bible, Wittenberg, Germany (2022 tour)

How Do the Catholic and Protestant Bibles Differ?

The Pentateuch

The Pentateuch (or books of the Law) contains the same five books in both Bibles: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.

The Minor Prophets

The Minor Prophets contain the same twelve books in both Bibles: Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.

The Major Prophets

Both Bibles contain these five books of the Major Prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, and Daniel. However, the Catholic Bible has one additional book: Baruch.

Poetical and Wisdom Books

Both Bibles contain these five Poetical and Wisdom books: Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon. However, the Catholic Bible has two additional books: the Wisdom of Solomon and Sirach.

Historical Books

Both Bibles contain these twelve Historical books: Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, 1 Kings, 2 Kings, 1 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther. However, the Catholic Bible has four additional books: Tobit, Judith, 1 Maccabees, and 2 Maccabees.

What Part Does the Apocrypha Play?

The books of the Bible not included in the Protestant Bible are usually called the Apocrypha, meaning “hidden books”), Old Testament Apocrypha (since all are included in the Catholic Bible), or deuterocanonical books (from the Greek word meaning “belonging to the second canon” or having secondary authority).

This third set of books, or “extra books”, were not considered to be divinely inspired but regarded as worthy of study by the faithful. These books were written during the Intertestamental period of those four hundred years between Malachi (the end of the Old Testament) and Matthew (the beginning of the New Testament).

Translation Issue

Since Greek was the common language of the Eastern Roman Empire, some of the later Jewish books were written in Greek instead of Hebrew. These later books were only included in the Greek translation of the Old Testament called the “Septuagint.”

Between 383 and 404 AD, St. Jerome translated the whole Bible into Latin, which was the common language of the Western Roman Empire. When he translated the Greek New Testament and the original Hebrew Old Testament into Latin, he also translated the Greek “Apocrypha” – those extra books.

However, he diligently included notations that they were not part of the original Hebrew Old Testament. Unfortunately, later copyists neglected or omitted St. Jerome’s notations, and soon his whole Latin translation was considered of equal divine authority.

What Books are in the Apocrypha?

The Apocrypha consists of the following books: Judith, Wisdom of Solomon, Tobit, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, Epistle of Jeremiah, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, 3 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees, Old Greek Esther, Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, Prayer of Azariah, Song of the Three Holy Children, Prayer of Manasseh, 1 Esdras, 2 Esdras, and Psalm 151.

Castle Church, Wittenberg, Germany
Castle Church, Wittenberg, Germany (2022 tour)

The Impact of the Protestant Reformation

During the 16th century Protestant Reformation, Protestant scholars, including former Catholic priest Martin Luther, rediscovered the importance of both the original Hebrew Old Testament and the Hebrew language in which it was written. 

As a result of their rediscovery, many of these Protestant Christians did not accept the Greek additions (Apocrypha) as authoritative or part of sacred Scripture, but only the original Hebrew books of the Old Testament.  

Printing Press, Wittenberg, Germany
Printing Press, Lutherhaus, Wittenberg (2022 tour)

The First Printed Bible Editions

Before Protestant Reformers lodged their objections, the very first printed edition of the King James Bible included the Old Testament Apocrypha. Consequently, Roman Catholic Bibles today include seven books of the Old Testament Apocrypha as part of sacred Scripture.

Following the objections of these Protestant early church fathers, the second and subsequent editions of the King James version excluded the Apocrypha. Protestant Bibles exclude it from the biblical canon to this day.

Today, some Bibles include the Apocrypha as an appendix or provide a companion resource that separates it from the original Hebrew Old Testament.

Interestingly, the Gutenberg Bible does not contain the Apocrypha, as it was a printed version of the 3rd century Vulgate, which also omits the Apocrypha.

Gutenberg Bible, Library of Congress

The Dead Sea Scrolls

Located east of Jerusalem, the mountainous landscape of the Judean Desert plummets an astonishing 1200 meters to the lowest point on earth: the Dead Sea. This region near Qumran boasts rocky terrain, intense heat, and numerous desert caves. I have been there more than once and it is stark, to say the very least.

Some of the most dramatic stories in the Bible happened in that region. David ran from King Saul to seek refuge in those mountain caves. Jesus rejected the temptations of the devil in that barren desert.

Qumran, Israel
Judean Desert, Israel (2022 tour)

The Greatest Discovery

Yet in 1947, a young Bedouin shepherd was tracking stray sheep among those limestone cliffs lining the northwestern rim of the Dead Sea near Qumran. He stumbled upon a cave tucked into a crevice of a steep rocky hillside. Curious, he threw a stone into the darkness and was startled to hear the sound of breaking pots.

That sound echoed around the world as what turned out to be the greatest archaeological discovery of the twentieth century: the Dead Sea Scrolls. Buried in large clay pots in the arid sands of eleven Qumran caves for thousands of years, the shepherd boy’s discovery revolutionized our understanding of history and religion.

Clay jars, Qumran (2022 tour)

The Significance of the Scrolls

Also known as the “Qumran Cave Scrolls“, they contain significant religious literature dated between the third century AD to the first century AD. The scrolls include biblical manuscripts (books found in today’s Hebrew Bible) and non-biblical manuscripts—other religious writings of historical fact circulating during the Second Temple era, often related to the texts now in the Hebrew Bible. 

While Hebrew is the dominant language contained in the Scrolls, approximately 15% of the Scrolls are written in Aramaic and several are written in Greek. The materials making up the Scrolls mainly consist of parchment, although some are papyrus. Interestingly, the text of one Scroll is engraved on copper.

Why are the Scrolls so Vital?

So what does this have to do with our topic? Among the Dead Sea Scrolls are partial or complete copies of every book in the Hebrew Bible, all of which are contained in the Protestant Bible.

However, according to the Israel Antiquities Authority, three works of the Apocrypha are found among the Dead Sea Scrolls: Ben Sira (also known as the Wisdom of Ben Sira, Sirach, or Ecclesiasticus), the book of Tobit, and the Epistle of Jeremiah. These are included in today’s Catholic Bible, but not the Protestant Bible.

Timeline

The official list of Catholic books was pronounced at the Council of Trent during 1545-1563 AD. The Council of Trent was convened by Pope Paul III for all Catholic clerics in response to the Protestant Reformation. 

Over three separate sessions, the council reaffirmed the authority of the Catholic Church, codified scripture, affirmed Catholic doctrines, reformed abuses, and condemned Protestant theology. They also established the vision and goals of the Catholic Counter-Reformation.

Protestants of the Reformation are credited with removing the additional seven books from the Protestant Bibles. They argued that since those seven Apocryphal books were not contained in the Hebrew Bible they should not be a part of the Christian Bible.

Bottom Line

As a Protestant, I am guided by the 66 authoritative, inspired canonical books of the Old and New Testaments. The first time I read any part of the Apocrypha was when I wrote my in-depth Bible study on the book of Esther. Since then, I have read through other books in the Apocrypha.

Bible Study on Esther

However, I do not hold or teach the Apocryphal books to be the inspired Word of God. They do not act as a plum line for my spiritual journey.

I trust the Holy Spirit’s work in those vastly smarter Christian biblical scholars from long ago who did the hard work of deliberating, praying through, and assembling what we hold today as the Christian (or Protestant) Bible.

Studying the Bible has been the single greatest tool (apart from the Holy Spirit) that God has used to increase my faith and come to know Jesus personally. If you are new to Bible study, start with the book of John which provides a stunning, in-depth story of Jesus our Savior. Knowing Him changes everything.

To God alone be the glory.

The Dead Sea, Israel
The Dead Sea, Israel (2022 teaching tour)

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The Mandela Effect and the Bible

Has the Bible been affected by the mysterious and controversial Mandela Effect?

The Mandela Effect and the Bible
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I admit to being a tad out of the loop, but before a few days ago I had never heard of the Mandela Effect. The only thing I knew as “Mandela” referred to an incredible man who had been elected President of South Africa.

However, the more I ventured down the research rabbit hole, the more I learned about the Mandela Effect. Frankly, different things I read about it came off as fake content, fake news, or just plain out there.

What is the Mandela Effect?

If you have never heard of the Mandela Effect before, join the club. Let’s collectively add some new words to our vocabulary, explore the concept, and take a new look.

The Mandela Effect is a phenomenon in which a large group of people shares a false memory. The term was coined by writer Fiona Broome, who discovered that she and others distinctly remembered Nelson Mandela dying in prison in the 1980s, when in fact he survived and went on to become South Africa’s first black president.

Photo by Owen Cannon on Unsplash

There are numerous examples of the Mandela Effect influencing people’s memories of seemingly “well-known” aspects of popular culture. You may recognize a few of these.

Popular Examples of the Mandela Effect

To give you some easy examples, here are a few of the most popular Mandela Effects — the ones that seem to affect the most people, and be the most mind-blowing. The best way to ascertain a Mandela Effect is to ask a question, one which most people feel confident they will know the answer to.

1. Darth Vader and Luke Skywalker

Image credit: (Lucasfilm)

What famous movie line does Darth Vader say to Luke Skywalker at the end of The Empire Strikes Back? This seems to be the one that blows most people’s minds. Almost every fantasy world movie fan on Earth who has seen the movie will immediately state, “Luke, I am your father.”

In reality, this line does not exist. Rather, Darth Vader says, “No, I am your father.” As a Star Wars fan, I am embarrassed to admit that I remembered it wrong all of these years. Saying Luke’s name seems much more dramatic!

Despite the fact that millions upon millions of people claim to have watched The Empire Strikes Back dozens, if not hundreds, of times, they still carry false memories of its most famous quote.

2. Snow White and the Mirror

Image credit: (Disney)

What does the evil queen recite in the mirror in the film Snow White? That’s simple. “Mirror, mirror on the wall, who is the fairest one of all?” I mean, right?

Wrong again. She actually says: “Magic mirror on the wall, who is the fairest one of all?” Don’t feel bad, I got it wrong too.

Like The Empire Strikes Back, there are millions of people who have seen Snow White an inordinate amount of times who will argue that she says, “Mirror mirror” until they find the clip on YouTube or pull out their old VHS tape to verify it.

Even then they might insist that their copy of the movie or clip they found online must have somehow changed because there’s no way they could misremember such an iconic cinematic moment.

What Causes the Mandela Effect?

The most likely — and simplest — explanation is when a collective false memory gains truth through cultural reinforcement. In other words, we hear something misquoted so often that the inaccuracy somehow morphs into truth.

Photo by Shubham Sharan on Unsplash

Having a “Mandela Effect” experience can be disturbing. It can cause someone to truly wonder about their experience or even question their certainty about other experiences or beliefs they hold true. For example, you are probably still disturbed if you thought the queen said “Mirror mirror.

I ran across several other explanations for the Mandela Effect including parallel realities and worlds, time travel, strong delusion, and alterations to the timeline of history. As I said, I went down quite a colorful research rabbit hole. However, all of those “reality principle” explanations are off-track for this post.

What in the world does all of this have to do with Scripture?

The Mandela Effect and the Bible

Non-Christians sometimes attempt to apply the Mandela Effect to the Word of God itself. However, after grasping what we talked about above, I wholeheartedly disagree. That being said, sometimes our recollection of the Bible is not immune to the Mandela Effect.

The Mandela Effect is not just reserved for popular culture and movie lines. You and I have seen it with regard to some popular verses and stories from the Bible as well. The original version and the popular version of beloved passages, if you will. Here are a few examples:

Exodus 34:14

Without looking it up, complete this verse: “…for you shall worship no other god, for the Lord, whose name is _________, is a jealous God” (Exodus 34:14, ESV).

Do you remember what goes in that blank? Jehovah? Yahweh? Elohim? Lord? God? All wrong. The verse actually reads: “…for you shall worship no other god, for the Lord, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God.

Look it up yourself in any translation. God self-identifies as Jealous. Culture and the world perceive jealousy as negative. However, God’s jealousy over us reinforces His love and protective care.

Matthew 18:20

Let’s pick a verse that may be familiar to a more significant number of people. Complete this verse: “For where two or ______ are gathered in my name, there am I among them” (Matthew 18:20, ESV).

What word goes in the blank? For where two or more gather in my name… right? Wrong. The verse actually reads, “For where two or three are gathered in my name, there am I among them.” Look it up yourself in any translation.

While some may perceive that “three” lessens the power of “more” in this verse, it actually elevates the meaning extraordinarily. “Two or three” means that it does not take an army to get God’s attention. He knows each one of us personally. Every hair on our head. Every tear we shed.

The Mandela Effect is Different From Inaccuracies

Let me be crystal clear. How we remember Scripture does not in any way affect its accuracy. As the Dead Sea Scrolls have proven, God’s Word remains true and unchanged over the millennia.

I am referring to Bible verses that people remember since they were kids in Sunday school. Certain passages, or even ideas, that they are sure are accurate simply because they have heard them in a certain way over their lifetimes. Our memory cannot change the accuracy of what God breathed onto the page.

Perhaps the Mandela Effect has increased in recent years thanks to the internet. We have easier access to nearly limitless information that spouts whatever they believe to be true in their own words. We need truth to guide our lives, not a perceived truth.

The Truth and Reliability of the Bible

The great Reformer, Martin Luther, taught in the Catechism, “I and my neighbor and, in short, all people may err and deceive. But God’s Word cannot err.”

Referred to as the inerrancy of the Bible, it simply and profoundly means that the Bible is the Word of God, and God cannot err; therefore, the Bible cannot err. 

Scripture declares emphatically that “it is impossible for God to lie” (Hebrews 6:18, ESV). The Apostle Paul tells us of the “God who does not lie” (Titus 1:2, ESV). He is a God who, even if we are faithless, “if we are faithless, he remains faithful—for He cannot deny Himself” (2 Timothy 2:13, ESV).

God is truth (John 14:6, ESV) and so is His Word. Jesus said to the Father, “Your Word is truth” (John 17:17, ESV). The psalmist exclaimed, “The entirety of Your Word is truth” (Psalm 119:160, ESV).

I don’t know about you, but I crave God’s solid truth in a world full of magic mirrors.

Conclusion

So has the Bible been affected by the mysterious and controversial Mandela Effect? It can certainly affect how human beings remember certain Bible verses, but it does not alter or affect Scripture itself.

It is crucial that we become Bereans regarding what we learn and hear around us (especially on social media updates). What does that mean?

Bereans “…received the Word with all eagerness, examining the Scriptures daily to see if these things were so” (Acts 17:11, ESV). They tested a person’s every word against Scripture to determine truth.

Such a focused stare on God and His Word easily debunks any fake news that we glance at.

I pray that we are Bereans in our diligence about God’s Word — in its learning, its application, and especially how we live it out each day.

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What Is The Last Sentence In The Bible?

As a writer, I realize that there are two important elements in anything I write: the beginning and the ending. A strong opening draws in people and keeps them reading, while a powerful close gives readers a nugget to take with them or linger over.

So what about the best-selling and most shared book of all time?

How Does the Bible Begin?

Genesis, the first book in the Bible, is riveting from the very beginning. The first words in God’s holy Word are spell-binding:

In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters” (Genesis 1:1-2, ESV).

What an action-packed opening! Those words create a sense of great anticipation. When something or someone is “hovering”, the story becomes a scene poised for motion. It is a glorious moment to savor as God prepares to breathe new life throughout the earth.

It is important to note that the book of Genesis actually picks up in the middle of the story, so to speak. Part of God’s great story has already happened. An epic battle has already taken place.

God has already cast Satan and a third of heaven’s angels to earth in rejection. It’s almost like the passages above could be depicted as God hovering over the aftermath of a smoky battle scene.

Photo by Nathan Anderson on Unsplash

However, since all of Scripture is inspired by God, I do not believe biblical writers focused solely on writing extraordinary beginnings and endings. This whole book of life is extraordinary, filled with God’s purpose for our lives.

Yet it is still instructive for us to look at how the biblical writers wrapped up their stories and letters in an attempt to understand why. The ancient texts of the Old Testament are important, but since the final words in the Bible are contained in the New Testament we will focus there.

Why Do Final Words Matter?

If you have ever sat at the bedside of someone who is taking their final breaths on earth, you know the answer. No one uses their final moments to talk about the weather. Or how they should have devoted even longer hours at their corporate job away from their loved ones.

Photo by National Cancer Institute on Unsplash

Listening carefully to someone’s last sayings is one of the little ways that God reminds us of what matters. A modern-day burning bush, if you will, to get our attention back on relationships – both with Him and those He places in our lives.

Our only wise God never wants us to forget the Son of God and what His sacrifice secured for us. Life. Eternal life with Him through faith because He loves us too much to be separated from Him forever.

The last day that I was sitting by my Dad’s bedside, he whispered about love. How much he loved Mom and his four daughters. How important it is that we love one another (and we certainly do). And how fast time slips through our fingers.

By Noon, he was gone and finally seeing God face-to-face. Even now twenty years later, Dad’s last words linger in my soul as if he declared them in a loud voice instead of a soft whisper.

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The Last Words in the Gospels

As we work our way toward the last sentence in the Bible, the importance of last words also holds true in each of the four Gospels. Do you know them?

1. Matthew

Matthew ends his Gospel by quoting Jesus in the Great Commission, which believers embrace to this day as a personal call to action:

Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always to the end of the age” (Matthew 28:19-20, ESV).

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2. Mark

Mark contains two endings. The second one is not found in all manuscripts, and the first version ends abruptly on a cliffhanger:

So then the Lord Jesus, after He had spoken to them, was taken up into heaven and sat down at the right hand of God. And they went out and preached everywhere, while the Lord worked with them and confirmed the message by accompanying signs” (Mark 16:19-20, ESV).

3. Luke

Luke wraps up his incredible biography of Jesus by revealing what Jesus’ followers did. This provides an excellent contrast to what Jesus told his followers at the end of Matthew. The impetus? Our actions need to match our words:

Then He led them out as far as Bethany, and lifting up His hands He blessed them. While He blessed them, He parted from them and was carried up into heaven. And they worshiped Him and returned to Jerusalem with great joy, and were continually in the temple blessing God” (Luke 24:50-53, ESV).

4. John

As a writer, I particularly connect with the ending of John’s Gospel. I love hearing stories. I love telling stories. And Jesus’ stories are the best:

Now there are also many other things that Jesus did. Were every one of them to be written, I suppose that the world itself could not contain the books that would be written” (John 21:25, ESV).

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What About the Last Book of the Bible?

The last book in Scripture is the book of Revelation. In it, God teaches about His new creation – a new heaven and a new earth. It offers a startling account of the end times as God revealed it to the Apostle John.

Some have unwisely taken the words of the prophecy of this book out of context and tried to predict the end of the world. That’s not the point of the book of Revelation.

John reveals visions of wondrous and seemingly strange things about the heavenly places. He describes the vivid divine power of our heavenly Father, a holy city, and the kingdom of God for those who receive eternal life through faith.

He used symbols and symbolism to convey significant messages – in code if you will – to the first-century believers. He did not want to risk his messages being destroyed by his captives, so he wrote using references that only believers would understand.

John was the only one of Jesus’ original twelve disciples who died of natural causes. He lived to be approximately 90 years old, which was astonishing at that time. Many people today do not even live to see their ninetieth birthday.

The Last Sentence in the Bible

The last sentence in the Bible is a beautiful spiritual blessing: “The grace of the Lord Jesus be with all. Amen” (Revelation 22:21, ESV).

Why grace? Look around the world. Do you see much of it on the street corners? Look around our neighborhoods. Do you see in the houses down the block or across the field? Look around our hearts. How often do you need to be reminded that God’s grace is for you?

What is so Amazing About Grace?

Philip Yancey wrote a whole book about his personal quest to answer this question. In it, he wrote: “Grace is the church’s great distinctive. It’s the one thing the world cannot duplicate, and the one thing it craves above all else–for only grace can bring hope and transformation to a jaded world.” (What’s So Amazing About Grace, Zondervan, 2002). Over one million copies of this book have been sold worldwide.

The Greek word for grace in the last sentence of the Bible is charis, which refers to the merciful kindness of God. Period.

Grace means that God exerts His holy influence upon believers to strengthen us, and increase our faith in, knowledge of, and affection for Him.

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Craving Grace

Even if we do not realize it, we need grace. In fact, our souls crave it. Grace fosters hope and serves as a holy catalyst for change. No matter what we have done or how badly we have sinned in the past, grace wipes the slate clean toward a bright future.

We may have difficulty seeing grace among believers on a consistent basis, but we will always find grace for us each day in Scripture. As Philip Yancey so wisely stated, grace only comes from God. We do not find a such source in the world.

Grace is so paramount that the Apostle Paul ended the overwhelming majority of his Epistles (letters) with a recurring reminder of God’s grace. A few examples:

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all” (2 Corinthians 13:14, ESV).

The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit” (Philippians 4:23, ESV).

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Why is Grace Significant?

Every effort to define grace runs the risk of missing the mark. Jesus never used the word himself. However, studying the context usage helps us better grasp the wonder of grace. The events and actions of Jesus’ life communicate grace as something better lived out than written about.

Grace is amazing because it typically works contrary to reason and against the grain of common sense. In a world that is organized around “you get what you pay for” and “you get what you deserve,” grace turns all achievement philosophies upside down.

God’s love for us has no strings attached. No earned approval strategies. In fact, grace is never anything a person can get or work toward. Grace only arrives as a gift that must be received. 

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Letting it Linger

When we finish reading the Bible or arrive at the end of any book, we usually follow one of two courses. The first is to read the last line fast and quickly close our Bible, glad to have finished another book. Check!

The second is that we sit still, allow the ending to sit with us, and contemplate its final words. Perhaps even read the last sentence again. May I suggest that we follow this course with Scripture?

When we read the last sentence of the Bible or the last sentence in any one of its books, take time to sit still for a bit. Linger over that final sentence in the context of what came before them.

And friends, the final words in Scripture are certainly worth lingering over: “The grace of the Lord Jesus be with all. Amen” (Revelation 22:21, ESV).

Amen.

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Seven Powerful Truths About Biblical Self-Discipline

Many of us start a new year with a list of items or disciplines that we want to improve or initiate. Especially if we have faced years of struggle or defeat in particular areas of our life.

As Christians, we have been set apart to be holy for the Lord. He provides all of the tools for success. However, growth in personal holiness is largely determined by our commitment to self-discipline.

Some Christians view self-discipline as leaving God out of the equation. Nothing could be further from the truth. In fact, nothing could be more harmful. We cannot advance in grace without godly, foundational discipline.

Before other disciplines can be successfully administered, whether in our health, finances, relationships, or spiritual walk, self-discipline must come first.

What Does the Bible say about Self-Discipline?

Self-discipline is usually not a popular subject except in two scenarios: (1) a new year rolls over and we make resolutions to change or improve, or (2) we have succumbed to destructive sin that has resulted in harm to ourselves or others. However, self discipline is a good work that results in greater knowledge of God and His plan for our lives.

In our culture, and even among many Christians, reminders of self-discipline are resisted. Some go so far as to call it legalism or trampling our Christian liberty.

God’s Word is clear about the importance of personal discipline. Those who label such instruction of the Lord as restrictions to their freedom in Christ are choosing to put on a spiritual straightjacket instead of the armor of God.

Here are seven powerful truths that we need to understand about biblical discipline:

(1) What Is Self-Discipline?

The Greek word translated as “discipline” (enkrateia) comes from the root krat, which denotes power or lordship. Self-discipline means exercising power over one’s self. It is the ability to keep our inner desires, thoughts, actions, and words under control. Every believer is instructed to exercise this self-control over his or her own life (Gal. 5:23).

This power that we need comes from the Holy Spirit in us. The light of the Lord in every believer gives us all the power needed over darkness to master any type of discipline.

The next generation desperately needs to see living examples of how to embrace and flourish while following the discipline of the Lord. We can display vital, unspoken words of encouragement written on the canvas of a believer’s life who is wholly submitted to the Father’s instruction.

(2) What Self-Discipline Is Not

To best understand what self-discipline is, we need to grasp what it is not. The opposite of self-discipline is self-indulgence. We have all been there in one form or another. But the Word of God is clear: a self-indulgent lifestyle produces “the works of the flesh” (Gal. 5:19-21).

Sinful deeds are the inevitable result when we lack self-control. Self-discipline brings every thought, word, and deed captive to the obedience of Christ (2 Cor. 10:5). Any expectation of personal holiness and spiritual growth requires self-control.

Two Erroneous Views of the Christian Life

Two erroneous views of the Christian life—Pelagianism and semi-Pelagianism—distort the truth of self-discipline:

  1. Pelagius (AD 354–420) was a British theologian who taught that man has the inherent ability to both save and sanctify himself. He claimed that a person is able to accomplish godly behavior through their own sheer force of will — that mere knowledge of God’s will was all that was needed to discipline himself through sheer determination.
  2. A second erroneous view is semi-Pelagianism, which assumes that man has some ability or willpower to sanctify himself in partnership with God. In this joint venture, God and man are co-contributors to self-discipline. God gives a measure of grace, but man supplies the rest.

Pelagius was denounced as a heretic by the Council of Carthage (AD 418) for this fatal teaching and semi-Pelagianism was likewise declared heretical by the Western Church in the Second Council of Orange (AD 529).

Unfortunately, his thought process lingers with us. Many people today falsely believe that they can simply will themselves to be whatever they want to be. This erroneous dependence on our own inherent ability can lead to serious sin and God’s rod of correction.

Saint Augustine (AD 354–430) taught the truth from biblical text that God is the sole author of man’s salvation and sanctification. By His sovereign grace, God alone regenerates spiritually dead sinners. Augustinian teaching rightly understands that only God can produce authentic self-discipline in the believer.

The wise son or daughter of God realizes that spiritual discipline is key to resisting temptation and sin. Without self-discipline as a way of life, our spiritual lives are out of balance and subject to God’s discipline. The longer we neglect Christian discipline, the longer we prolong spiritual maturity.

Simply put, if we do not discipline ourselves through the Spirit’s strength in us, God Himself will discipline us (Heb. 12:5–11). One way or another, there will be discipline in our lives.

Given our tendency toward sin, disciplining ourselves for the purpose of godliness is a daily, if not hourly, struggle. Shirking this responsibility brings about the discipline of the Almighty.

(3) Who Produces Self-Discipline?

This virtue of self-control is given to every believer as a fruit of the Spirit (Gal. 5:22–23). There are nine aspects of the fruit of the Spirit. Self-discipline occupies the final position, assuming a place of strategic importance.

In other words, self-discipline sums up the previous eight qualities. The work of the Spirit reaches its consummation in self-control.

As a vine produces fruit, self-discipline is created exclusively by the Spirit. Self-control is never self-generated; rather, it is a work of grace within us. Though we actively practice it, we simply bear this fruit of self-discipline.

As sap flows into the branch, producing fruit, divine grace must fill the believer, producing self-control. The self can never produce self-discipline. Only Christians living under the Holy Spirit’s guidance can live self-controlled lives.

(4) What Does Self-Discipline Look Like?

The Apostle Paul provides an outstanding visual for us. He compared our Christian journey to an athlete training for athletic competitions: “Everyone who competes in the games exercises self-control in small things” (1 Cor. 9:25).

For a runner to be victorious, he must submit his entire life to the strict discipline of rigorous training. The athlete’s strenuous workout demands that he seriously restrict or even refuse individual freedoms. He must embrace a proper diet, sufficient rest, and intense training. Every area of his life must be brought under the Spirit’s control.

Paul adds, “I do not box as one beating the air” (1 Cor. 9:26). A champion boxer must have a clearly-focused aim in the ring, not wild punches that never land on his opponent. An undisciplined believer beats the air in his fight against sin.

Paul also warns that a champion athlete must beat his body into submission or be disqualified from the race: “But I discipline my body and keep it under control, lest…I myself should be disqualified” (1 Cor. 9:27). He urges that we discipline our bodies to resist sinful desires or forfeit the prize.

(5) What Is the Price?

Believers have liberty in Christ to pursue what is not forbidden in Scripture. Just remember that victory always comes at a price. The Christian life is no different.

This necessitates that we exercise self-discipline in areas like health, sleep, time, money, and entertainment choices. Anything that hinders us from winning the prize has to go.

Exercising self-control means relinquishing control of our lives to Jesus Christ. That is the paradox: giving up the control of self allows us to gain self-control. God, in His great love for us, enables us to exercise self-discipline, an absolute necessity for victory over sin.

(6) Bible Verses To Focus On

There are no two ways around it: Bible study and hiding God’s Word in our hearts are key to spiritual disciplines of any kind. Neglecting this quiet time with our loving heavenly Father is a recipe for failure. Here are helpful verses for our journey:

  • Jesus maintained, “Apart from Me, you can do nothing” (John 15:5). In our own willpower, we cannot do anything that pleases God. Only by God’s enabling grace can we exercise self-control in our ongoing war against sin.
  • “I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me” (Phil. 4:13). That is, Christ must be mightily working within us.
  • Every Christian is responsible to pursue holiness, yet God must work within us to produce personal godliness (Phil. 2:13–14).
  • “We destroy arguments and every lofty opinion raised against the knowledge of God, and take every thought captive to obey Christ” (2 Cor. 10:5).
  • “For the moment all discipline seems painful rather than pleasant, but later it yields the peaceful fruit of righteousness to those who have been trained by it” (Heb. 12:11).

(7) Practical Ways to Stay on Track

In this life, Christians face trials of many kinds – including a lack of discipline. But by the grace of God, He provides many tools that we can implement to stay on track. Here are a few very practical ways to make clear today:

(a) Begin with God

In the New Testament Paul simply states: “Train yourself for godliness” (1 Tim. 4:7). Embracing self-discipline (and pursuing holiness) translates into hearing biblical preaching and teaching, participating in corporate worship, the Lord’s Supper, regular Bible reading (download free plans here), meditation, prayer, and fellowship if we are to win the prize.

(b) Write Out a Plan

This means you need to have a plan in place. I use my calendar to ensure that proper time is allotted for Bible study, attending worship, and intentional prayer time.

Whatever system works for you is what will work for you. If you are OCD, perhaps cross-referenced, color-coded calendars are in your future.

Regardless of the method — phone reminders, calendars, or sticky notes on mirrors — utilize them to secure your plan. And follow it! Here is a guideline you might find useful.

(c) Solicit Accountability Partners

Accountability partners are always a good idea. When it comes to godly living and spurring each other toward self-discipline, each of us will struggle along the way.

Surrounding yourself with one or two solid accountability partners who will not let you off the hook is one of the most helpful and practical steps we can take.

One of my accountability partners pointed me to this book, “Atomic Habits“, that I have found extraordinarily helpful in my ongoing self-discipline journey.

Bottom Line

The most important place to start is on our knees. As one of God’s children, He alone gives us the grace and strength we need for self-discipline. We cannot generate it on our own. But what Scripture tells us is clear: when we seek God, we will find Him (Jer. 29:13).

His Word of truth will equip, sustain, and empower us to win the prize. There is nothing like that pure joy!

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Best Bible Reading Plans

Many people have never read the Bible cover to cover. That’s not a judgmental statement, because it used to be me! Nothing has completely transformed my life more quickly than spending time reading and studying God’s beautiful words every day of the week. God’s Word is living and active, and by the power of the Holy Spirit, transformation happens from the inside out.

Perhaps as you start this new year, daily Bible reading will provide a “soul reset” that you need to combat the world’s daily chaos. And that chaos, confusion, and dissension seem to gain momentum every year. We need God’s Word in our hearts, so let’s be intentional about it.

Do you want to pick a Bible reading plan that you won’t regret committing to for the next season? I have done all the work for you digging deep to find the top ways to read the Bible broken down in daily readings. These free downloadable plans vary widely, and you will likely be surprised by all the different approaches to help you read the Bible.

Why Read Through the Bible?

Reading and hearing God’s Word increases our faith (Romans 10:17). To that end, each checklist will guide you through the entire Bible at your own pace. Some days may go faster than others, but the whole point is to stay in God’s Word. His wonderful truths instruct, guide, and teach us, and provide the encouragement we need to shine His light in a dark world. And friends, this world NEEDS His light.

During your journey through Scripture, ask God each day to speak to you directly from His Word — whether you read a whole book of the Bible, an entire chapter, or one verse at a time. Approach His words of absolute truth with expectation. His story is our story.

Print off one of these free Bible reading plans and tuck it into your Bible. Make the commitment today to read through the most profound, life-changing truths ever written. You will never be the same again. His Words will hydrate you from the inside out.

One-Year Bible Reading Plan

This 52-week Bible reading plan methodically works through the whole Bible in one year. It combines readings from the Old Testament, New Testament, and Psalms each day to work through the entire book in a calendar year. Begin each day with prayer, asking God for discernment, and dive into each day’s reading. {Download here.}

Bible Reading Plan At Your Own Pace

This plan offers a lot of grace space when your days get busy. This plan allows you to pick up where you left off, no matter how long it’s been since you read the last entry. Once you get used to reading God’s Word on a regular basis, you can move back to specific books of the Bible or Scripture references where God has specifically touched your heart.

A dedicated Bible reading schedule is important, but if you are just starting out give yourself a lot of grace. If you miss a day, or a week, or feel like you are just shuffling pages, it’s okay. Your spiritual walk over the course of a year and your whole life takes diligence and patience. Trust in the Lord and how He will work through His Word in your heart and mind. {Download here.}

Historical Overview One-Year Bible Reading Plan

This Bible reading plan offers a basic outline of the Old and New Testaments, then fills in readings with more detailed books. You will read the entire Bible with this historical Bible reading plan!

The Old Testament readings follow a historical overview, then moves to the prophetic literature, followed by the wisdom literature, and Psalms (some twice). The New Testament begins with Christ’s birth, then moves into Acts (Luke’s sequel), followed by Ephesians (Paul’s teachings), the pastoral epistles, and so on. {Download here.}

Read The Bible In 90-Days

This 90-Day Bible reading plan is very different from the others. In biblical times, the Word of God was passed orally, learned orally, and memorized by hearing it orally. A pen and paper were not standard staples back then. Usually, only the rabbis in synagogues had printed copies of God’s Word. This plan allows you to hear the Bible as those people back in biblical times.

This is not a competition with yourself just to say that you have completed it. You WILL see God move in ways that you haven’t before if you walk through the Bible passages and listen. Even if you actually retain only a small portion of what the Bible says in each reading, you will retain what He wants you to hear for a long time – perhaps for your lifetime.

Pray each time you read to hear what God wants you to hear and be able to let the rest go. This is not a Bible study. This is a Bible reading. Absorb what you can. Listen. He will help you.

Setting a goal is important with this particular plan because each day’s reading takes an average of 45-60 minutes. Since our listening can easily become distracted, commit to actually reading a Bible rather than listening to an audio version. Take your Bible everywhere!

You are on an important mission, so grab additional reading time whenever possible: waiting to meet friends, waiting for the oven to preheat, a 10-minute break at work, waiting in your child’s school car pick-up line, or even arriving early at church and read before worship. Even 10 increments help. {Download here.}

Bottom Line

As you commit to walking through your daily or weekly readings, you will discover what a tremendous asset and great springboard it is to know what it means to live a Christ-centered life. That’s the bonus part of the plan!

Over time, you may discover a preferred Bible version, choose to jot down study notes as you read, write down some meaningful passages in your own words, or even venture past the daily reading assignments as God moves your heart toward His. The key is following those spiritual nudges as God brings them about. And He will.

There will be parts of the Bible that will be difficult to understand, but do not lose heart! The history of Israel in the Old Testament historical context sometimes seems harsh. We see a wrathful side of God in some of the battles.

But as you spend time in God’s Word on a daily basis, you will see God work and move in different ways. You will see His helping hand, His good way, and His unquestionable love for you.

Keep Going

When you finish a year plan, select another year’s reading plan! Studying the Bible is a lifelong adventure that never becomes stale. If you are not part of a bible class at church or in your community, I challenge you to find one. Such group Bible studies are a good resource to engender a stronger tie and accountability to maintain your own desire to keep moving forward.

There is no one way to read the Bible — that’s the beautiful part. There are many foundational passages of Scripture (such as John 3:16), and reading them in context is key to understanding God’s Word and His plan for your life.

I pray that this journey draws you closer to Jesus and inspires you to show His love and forgiveness to a world that desperately needs them.

All Four Plans for Free Downloading and Printing

  1. One-Year Bible Reading Plan
  2. Bible Reading Plan at Your Own Pace
  3. Historical Overview One-Year Bible Reading Plan
  4. Read the Bible in 90-Days

{Some of these links are affiliate links. This means if you make a purchase through that link, the ministry may receive a small commission at no extra cost to you. Thank you for your ministry support!}

Bethlehem: The Church of the Nativity

Only six miles south of Jerusalem in the West Bank stands the oldest continually used place of Christian worship in the world, Bethlehem’s Church of the Nativity. Originally built in the fourth century on the spot Christians hold as the birthplace of Jesus, historical sources reference the site as early as the second century.

Today, the Church of the Nativity is one of the most important sites of Christian pilgrimage, alongside Jerusalem’s Via Dolorosa and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

Earlier this month, I led a group of thirty pilgrims to visit Bethlehem and its beautiful Church of the Nativity. Visiting in December took on special meaning as the birthplace of our Savior. Leading up to our visit and during our time there, I learned the extensive and powerful history of the Church of the Nativity which will inform your next (or first) visit to this incredible church.

Preserving A Holy Cave and Constantine’s Church

Commissioned by the Roman emperor Constantine in the fourth century, the first church built at the site was consecrated on May 31, 339. However, by the mid-third century, the site had already taken on a sacred position. Early church Father Origen writes about a cave in Bethlehem that was known to be the place of Jesus’s birth.

Thus, Empress Helena journeyed to the Holy Land in 327 AD and a basilica was constructed above the cave, parts of which still exist today. This church consisted primarily of an octagonal altar located directly above the cave, with a five-aisle nave and an atrium.

Intricate mosaic tile floors were part of the original Byzantine church, and they can still be seen today. Wooden floors have been built over the mosaic flooring for its protection, but at certain spots, special hatches have been installed that can be lifted to view the original fourth-century mosaics. There was a collective audible gasp when our group was able to view them. They are stunning, to say the least!

Justinian’s Church of the Nativity

Constantine’s original Church of the Nativity stood until the early sixth century when it was partly burned down. Although it is uncertain what event caused the fire, many believe that it was a result of the Samaritan revolts, which were responsible for the burning of several other churches in the region. Nevertheless, Emperor Justinian reconstructed the church soon after. It is this Justinian basilica that still stands today, although numerous modifications have been made through the centuries.

Many modifications and refurbishments occurred during the Crusader period (1099–1291 AD); however, some sections of the church still preserve Constantine’s original fourth-century construction. The Justinian church changed the octagonal altar area into a cruciform (cross) shape. The nave was extended and the atrium was covered to construct a narthex. Justinian erected fifty, 18-foot tall columns along the nave and transepts constructed from local stone quarried near Jerusalem’s Old City.

The courtyard and columned walkway offer beautiful places for reflection, prayer, and simply sitting and pondering what happened here over 2,000 years ago. The key is to never forget the history and miracle of the Christ child’s birth as you walk through the church and grounds.

The Crusader Period

Unlike most other churches in the region, the Church of the Nativity remained relatively unscathed between the time of Justinian and the modern day, avoiding destruction during the periods of instability and turmoil that accompanied the Sassanid, Islamic, and Crusader conquests.

Part of this was due to the church’s distance from Jerusalem, and the relative insignificance of Bethlehem for the region’s strategic defense. The church’s survival even led to stories and legends that it was miraculously protected from such events.

Islamic Rule

During the early Islamic period (c. 634–1099 AD), a Muslim prayer space was introduced into the church alongside the traditional areas of Christian worship. The site remained a pilgrimage destination for western Christians during this time. In 808 AD, Charlemagne sent a mission to the church to record its various details and possibly even carry out some repairs.

On June 7, 1099, the Crusading Franks conquered Bethlehem and the Church of the Nativity. The following year, Baldwin of Boulogne’s coronation as king of the Kingdom of Jerusalem took place inside the church. Baldwin II would likewise be crowned king at the site in 1119.

During its years under Crusader control, extensive repairs and modifications were made to the church, mainly to bring it into conformity with the Latin rite. The basic plan of the Justinian church was left in place, however, as well as many of the various architectural features, including the columns. The Crusaders further encircled the complex in a large wall, parts of which were later incorporated into various monasteries that still stand today.

Beginning in the Crusader period, numerous murals, mosaics, and paintings were added to the church, including the lavish wall mosaics that are still partially preserved today, and the column paintings of various saints and supplicants, which were likely a joint venture between the church leaders and wealthy pilgrims.

The Church from Saladin until Today

Upon Saladin’s conquest of the Holy Land (around 1187 AD), much of the Roman Catholic clergy left the Church of the Nativity. Nevertheless, the church suffered very little damage and Christian worship continued at the site under the Greek Orthodox, Armenians, and other Christian traditions. Eventually, the Roman Catholics returned. The Church would continue relatively unaltered until the Ottoman period (1516–1917 AD).

Under the Ottomans, much of the marble, which had once decorated the Church of the Nativity, was plundered, possibly to be used in refurbishing Jerusalem’s Dome of the Rock. Since graven images are strictly forbidden according to Muslim law, many of the faces of the images on the columns were removed and unable to be restored properly.

Although still in use, the church would enter a long period of decay. Likewise, the central nave of the church was used for non-worship purposes, including legal proceedings and even housing Ottoman troops in the middle east when required. Eventually, church officials regained control over the church although, over the next several centuries, it continued to fall into disrepair.

The Modern Church of the Nativity

In 2012, the Church of the Nativity was deemed a UNESCO World Heritage site. At the time of its listing, it was considered in danger due to its poor state of preservation. However, in 2013, church officials and conservators began massive renovation projects on the church, restoring it to much of its former glory, Today, nearly two million visitors and pilgrims visit the church every year.

The entrance into the church is called “the Door of Humility” and was constructed during the Ottoman period. This small rectangular doorway is less than five feet high. In order to pass through this door, visitors are forced to bow down as they enter the church. The fact that visitors and pilgrims have to bow down in order to enter the Church of the Nativity has a theological significance: We must humble ourselves in order to approach God.

Accessing the Site Where Jesus was Born

The cave area where tradition holds that Jesus was born is located underneath the church’s altar area. Access is gained by descending steep marble steps into a grotto-like area. Various religions have donated ornate oil lamps that clergy and priests ensure are kept burning around the clock all year long.

The traditional place of Jesus’ birth is marked by a 14-point star, which signifies that Jesus is the son of David. Why a 14-point star? The Hebrew name for King David, dwd, has a numeric value: (d = 4) + (w = 6) + (d = 4) = the number 14. Also, three sets of fourteen generations separate Abraham and the birth of Jesus (Matthew 1:17).

Visiting Bethlehem in December

Visiting Bethlehem in December is magical, to say the least. As the birthplace of Jesus, Bethlehem is a must-stop this time of the year during the holiday season. I lead private groups on tours of Israel and this “Christmas city” where the birth of Christ took place is always a favorite. The low temperatures are in the 40s, while the average temperature in the daytime is in the 60s. December is not the coldest month and I have never encountered inches of snow during this time; however, snow has been known to happen in December.

This first month of the winter season means that winter shadows create excellent opportunities for taking beautiful photographs. December is one of the lowest UV index months, as well, and the average rainfall is minimal. Winter conditions requiring snow removal are exceedingly rare. Cold winds and snow showers are rare this time of year, as well. Cloud cover and the dew point are low, though a wet day may happen (as it rained briefly when our group was there).

The Bottom Line

It is important to understand the historical and traditional significance of Christian holy sites. However, we cannot leave out the spiritual significance. Bethlehem, according to God’s Word, was the place hand-picked by God before the beginning of time to welcome His Son into the world.

Bethlehem was intentionally chosen by our Creator. And our Creator intentionally created you.

If you ever have a chance to visit Bethlehem, do not let the physical beauty of a church diminish the spiritual significance of that beautiful place.

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Reformation Tour Through Germany: Nuremberg, Augsburg, Munich and the Passion Play

We have traced my 10-day tour through Germany in the steps of Martin Luther through Erfurt, Wittenberg, Wartburg Castle, and Eisenach. We have looked at how Luther became a monk, then a priest, then a leader of the Reformation movement after he posted the 95 Theses on the Castle Church doors.

Next, our tour group turned south toward Nuremberg, Augsburg, and Munich, which we will cover today.

Nuremberg

Luther called Nuremberg “the eye and the ear of Germany” because of its 21 printing houses. On July 6, 1530, Luther wrote an open letter from the Veste Coburg (Coburg Fortress) to Elector and Archbishop Albrecht of Brandenburg, challenging his opponents to prove him wrong according to Scripture.

Luther wrote: “I would have preferred to write this letter in confidence and by hand to your Electoral Grace. But, I was afraid that in this fast time, it might possibly be published adulterated and misinterpreted on my behalf one way or the other. And, perhaps I would put your Electoral Grace under suspicion. That is why I dared to publish it in print myself, so as to prevent the poisonous, suspicious interpreters.”

Luther was burdened by the discord between the German princes triggered by his Augsburg Confession. He criticized the German princes, who adhered to the pope’s followers, in drastic words. Nuremberg was the first major city to embrace Lutheranism.

St. Sebald Church

St. Sebald is Nuremberg’s oldest church, consecrated in 1273, and was the first Catholic cathedral to convert to Lutheranism. It takes its name from Sebaldus, an 8th-century hermit and missionary and patron saint of Nuremberg.

Construction began in 1225 and was completed by 1273-75. It was originally built as a Romanesque basilica with various additions and stained glass added in subsequent centuries.

The church suffered serious damage during World War II and was subsequently reconstructed. Some of the old interior did survive, including the Shrine of St. Sebaldus, works by Veit Stoss and the stained glass windows. The church had an organ by the 14th century, and another by the 15th.

St. Lorenz Church

We also stepped into St. Lorenz (St. Lawrence) church. Building begun around 1250 and was originally built as a three-aisled basilica in the high Gothic style.

It was built on the site of a former Romanesque chapel dedicated to “St. Lawrence the Holy Sepulchre”, which belonged to the parish church of the city of Fürth and was mentioned in documents of the first half of the 13th century.

St. Lorenz was one of the first churches in Germany to become Lutheran (since 1529). Today the church belongs to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria.

Augsburg

From Nuremberg, our group headed to Augsburg, where Martin Luther met with the papal legate, Cardinal Cajetan, at their demand, in 1518 at St. Anna’s Church. Augsburg was the site of another Imperial Diet (political assembly) in 1530, at which Protestants presented their confession. At the time it was the foremost doctrinal statement of the Lutheran Church.

The Augsburg Confession

The Augsburg Confession consisted of the 28 articles that constituted the basic confession of the Lutheran churches. It was presented June 25, 1530, in German and Latin at the Diet of Augsburg to the emperor Charles V by seven Lutheran princes and two imperial free cities.

The principal author was the reformer Philipp Melanchthon, who drew on earlier Lutheran statements of faith. The purpose was to defend the Lutherans against misrepresentations and to provide a statement of their theology that would be acceptable to the Roman Catholics. 

The first 21 articles of the Augsburg Confession set forth Lutheran doctrine in order to demonstrate that “they dissent in no article of faith from the Catholic Church.” The remaining seven articles discuss abuses that had crept into the Western church in the centuries immediately preceding the Reformation.

Twenty five years later in the Augsburg town hall, the Peace of Augsburg was signed in 1555, ending for a time the religious wars in Germany between the Catholics and the Protestants.

Where the Augustinian Confession made and split forever the Catholic and Protestant churches.

Munich

When we finished walking through Augsburg on a beautiful fall day, we boarded the bus and headed down to Munich to enjoy Germany’s historic Oktoberfest!

Oktoberfest

I had never been to Oktoberfest before and it was so much fun! Each tent boasted a different theme and different menu. There was live music and merriment in every tent. Although the day started out cold and rainy, it ended beautifully so that we were able to walk around and fully enjoy Oktoberfest.

Munich’s Glokenspiel

We paused in Munich’s Marienplatz at Noon to watch the beautiful Glokenspiel (clock) in the City Tower. The clock shows two events from Munich’s city history. On the Glokenspiel’s top floor, the wedding of Duke Wilhelm V and Renate of Lorraine, celebrated in February 1568. In honor of the bride and groom, a jousting tournament took place on Marienplatz. The Bavarian knight triumphed over his opponent from Lorraine.

The lower floor shows the Schäffler dance. After a severe plague epidemic, the barrel makers are said to have been the first to venture out into the streets again, dancing to amuse the plague-stricken population.

Neuschwanstein Castle

Maximilian II had already had paths and lookout points constructed in the area around Hohenschwangau in order to be able to enjoy the scenery. In the 1840s, as a birthday present for his mountain-climbing consort Marie, he had the bridge, the “Marienbrücke”, built high above the Pöllat Gorge.

“New Hohenschwangau Castle” (it only acquired the name of “Neuschwanstein” after the death of the king). It was to be a better recreation of an ideal medieval castle than Hohenschwangau.

Hohenschwangau Castle

Crown Prince Maximilian II of Bavaria, Ludwig II’s father, had the ruined castle of Schwanstein rebuilt from 1832 in the “Gothic style”. The young Ludwig was influenced by the romantic mountain scenery and the summer castle became one of his favourite places to stay.

Hohenschwangau was decorated with scenes from medieval legends and poetry, including the legend of the swan knight Lohengrin. Ludwig identified himself when still a boy with Lohengrin, to whom Richard Wagner dedicated a romantic opera in 1850.

Linderhof Palace

Ludwig II, who was crowned king in 1864, began his building activities in 1867/68 by redesigning his rooms in the Munich Residenz and laying the foundation stone of Neuschwanstein Castle. In 1868 he was already making his first plans for Linderhof. However, neither the palace modelled on Versailles that was to be sited on the floor of the valley nor the large Byzantine palace envisaged by Ludwig II were ever built.

Instead, the new building developed around the forester’s house belonging to his father Maximilian II, which was located in the open space in front of the present palace and was used by the king when crown prince on hunting expeditions with his father. Linderhof Palace, the eventual result of a long period of building and rebuilding, is the only large palace King Ludwig II lived to see completed.

Oberammergau

We spent the night in Munich before heading to Oberammergau after breakfast. Oberammergau is a lovely village with so much medieval charm. There are many quaint shops, a museum, Lutheran church, and woodcarving workshop.

Some of our group attended the morning service at the Lutheran Church, and our very own Pastor John Heckmann was invited to do the Gospel readings. It was a lovely, spirit-filled, and peace-filled service with a kind pastor and extraordinary organist. Attending that church service was truly one of the trip’s highlights for me personally.

The Passion Play

Then it was time to attend the Passion Play! The whole town organizes it’s meal schedules and staff around showtime so that everyone can participate serving behind the scenes or actually taking part in the play itself.

The history of the Oberammergau Passion Play begins in 1633. In the midst of the Thirty Years’ War, after months of suffering and dying from the plague, the people of Oberammergau pledged to act out the play of the suffering, death and resurrection of our Lord, Jesus Christ once every 10 years. The promise has been kept until this year when it had to postponed from 2020 to 2022 due to COVID.

The entire play is delivered in German, however the text book is all in English and is very easy to follow. It tells about the choir, what music they are singing, and the dialogue of the actors so that you always know where they are in the storyline.

No pictures are allowed during the five hour performance (split into two segments with a long intermission in between), but their website has beautiful pictures to peruse.

I snapped a few of the venue and scenery before the play actually began. It is covered, but not enclosed, so be sure to bundle up if it is cold. We had blankets for our laps, winter coats, mittens, scarves and warm socks to keep warm. Here we are!

The next morning, we headed to the airport bound for home in the United States. Walking in Luther’s footsteps was truly an amazing learning adventure. God used Luther in significant ways in the church, and the work that Luther and his fellow reformers did still carries the Protestant churches today.

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Grief is Not Linear

He was only in his 50s. That reality kept swirling through my mind as I stood pale in a black suit in front of the bedroom mirror this morning.

Sixteen days. From diagnosis to earthly departure, Rick’s wife, two sons, and two daughters only had two weeks. To digest the scope of his newly-discovered cancer. Hear the worst. Hope for the best. And start preparing for the inevitable.

But Rick knew Jesus. And that made all the difference.

Today was the second such funeral that I have attended in the past two months. My other friend Koy had not yet reached 50. He was healthy, vibrant, loved Jesus, loved his wife, and loved running. He kissed his wife one afternoon to go for a run and God called him home.

Just like that. No warning. No terminal illness. Such a significant loss for his wife, family, and all of us who knew him.

Koy knew Jesus, too. And that made all the difference.

The Grief Process

Today as I sat in the pew listening to “Broken Hallelujah” ring from the altar, tears streaming, the truth sunk in: the grieving process is not linear. Some argue that there is a right way to grieve and a wrong way, but we can all agree that the grief process does not follow a linear timeline. There are good days. Bad days. Mad days. Don’t-wanna-get-outta-bed days. Happy memory days.

When loved ones become ill, sometimes the illness lingers for years. Like my dad’s cancer. In those scenarios, we sometimes start walking through the stages of grief even before that person is gone – simply because we know it’s coming. I remember looking for the most healthy or best ways to grieve.

But when death is sudden, time passes like lightning.

Both of my friends’ wives now live a new reality as they walk through the early days of their grief journey. The state of shock and pain of loss are often processed in different ways, and most involve tears. Yes, death is an inevitable part of life, but today was not the day to spout that truth.

Grieve Today, Hope Eternally

Today was a grief day. And the best thing I could do – that any of us can do – is show up. Hug them. Pray for them. Take them a hot meal. Talk about different times, and happier times, and share fun memories with them. Laughter is just as important as tears during the healing process.

Even though our first reaction is grief, as a Christian the next moment is relief. Because Jesus died in our place and took our sins to the cross, my friends know that their husbands are experiencing unimaginable joy.

Rick and Koy are face-to-face with the One who faced death in their place. Because of Jesus, both of those gentlemen are ALIVE with Christ. For all of eternity.

This earthy life has time limits. Through our loved one’s absence, the permanence of death is felt. But the final stage of life on earth ushers in life eternal with Christ. Despite our great loss, feelings of grief, or loss of a dream, we will see our loved ones again. And what a beautiful reunion it will be!

God’s Promises

And there is only one way that a heavenly reunion will happen: through faith in Jesus Christ as our Lord and Savior.

I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish; no one will snatch them out of my hand. My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all; no one can snatch them out of my Father’s hand. I and the Father are one.” John 10:28-30

For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life.” John 3:16

For our light and momentary troubles are achieving for us an eternal glory that far outweighs them all.” 2 Corinthians 4:17

I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God so that you may know that you have eternal life.” 1 John 5:13

When All is Said and Done

Grief is not a linear process. There are anger stages, denial stages, and other stages of loss. When our hearts are pierced by a hole of grief and good days seem gone, I pray that you remember the best is yet to come. No, not today. Probably not even tomorrow or in the next several months.

But one day, you will realize that all you remembered was the way they smiled. The way they lived life to the fullest. The way that they loved you.

And one day, when our time on earth is over and God calls us back home, we WILL see our loved ones again. Jesus made it possible. Jesus made it a reality.

Today we grieved. But we did not grieve without hope.

Thank you, Jesus.

And now, dear brothers and sisters, we want you to know what will happen to the believers who have died so you will not grieve like people who have no hope.” 1 Thessalonians 4:13

Reformation Tour Through Germany: Eisenach and Wartburg Castle

So far, our 10-day trip through Germany in the steps of Martin Luther have taken us through Erfurt and Wittenberg. We have traced Luther’s beginnings, when he became a monk, then ordained as a priest, and finally when Luther posted the 95 Theses on the doors of the Castle Church.

On a beautiful Fall day in Bavaria, Germany, our group then turned toward the town of Eisenach and Wartburg Castle.

Eisenach

The charming town of Eisenach was founded in the middle ages around 1150 and later chartered in 1283. It is situated on the northwestern slopes of the Thuringian Forest where the Hörsel and Nesse rivers converge. Germany’s Social Democratic Workers’ Party was founded at the Congress of Eisenach in 1896. This view of Eisenach from Wartburg Castle was stunning!

Martin Luther stayed in Eisenach’s Lutherhaus as a schoolboy. Since our group had seen the Lutherhaus in Wittenberg where he spent 36 years of his life, we did not stop at the Lutherhaus as part of a guided tour in Eisenach.

Other notable landmarks include the Romanesque Church of St. Nicholas, the Gothic St. George’s Church, and museums in memory of the composer Johann S. Bach (born at Eisenach in 1685).

The slow-paced atmosphere and stunning surroundings make Eisenach worth visiting. There are no medieval fortifications or a fairytale castle, but there was charm at every turn. And even though Martin Luther spent time here, another famous resident lived (and was actually born) in this gem in the state of Bavaria. Our first stop off the tour bus was visiting the house and museum of Johann S. Bach.

Johann Sebastian Bach

Right next to Eisenach’s main square, a statue of Bach stands next to the Bach house. And it was another gorgeous Fall day!

The Bach House first opened its doors in 1907 and it is still the largest museum dedicated to Johann Sebastian Bach in the world.

In his birthplace we encountered the life and work of the composer in a unique way. More than 250 exhibits occupy the adjacent museum, preserved historical living spaces transported us back to his time, and the atmospheric baroque garden were delightful.

This is the front of Bach’s original home, still preserved well today. Although when you view it from the side, the upper walls are leaning out slightly on top of the original stonework base.

A plaque on the front door memorializes this as Johann S. Bach’s original home. He was born in Eisenach on March 21, 1685 and grew up here for the first ten years of his life. He had his first music lesson here, sang in the school choir and also sang at St. George’s Church.

The beautiful baroque garden offered Bach a beautiful oasis away from distractions and Eisenach’s bustling city life to compose his musical masterpieces.

They have beautifully preserved Bach’s studio where he composed the vast majority of his musical masterpieces. His desk remains as it was when he walked the halls.

We experienced a delightful treat when the Bach House’s resident musician gave a 30-minute concert using century-old instrument replicas of the ones that Bach would have actually played on. What a lovely treat to hear Bach’s music in Bach’s home!

Our group took a break after touring through Bach’s home, garden, and concert to enjoy lunch. I was delighted to find a “Little Bach” to accompany my “Little Luther” keepsake! Naturally, I had to assemble each as we waited for our wienerschnitzel to arrive.

Following lunch, our group boarded the bus to head up the hill to Wartburg Castle. It is perched on a low mountain with sweeping views of Eisenach below.

Wartburg Castle

On a hill above the city is the Wartburg, an ancient castle of the landgraves, where Luther began his translation of the Bible, Wartburg Castle sits in splendor over the town of Eisenach in Thuringia.

It was the first German castle to be designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1999 and is widely described as an exemplary hilltop castle of the feudal period in central Europe, despite alterations and additions made in later centuries. Wartburg Castle presents an impressive overview of 1,000 years of German history.

According to legend, the castle’s origins date back to 1067. The surviving main castle building, the 12th century palas (great hall), a gem of late Romanesque architecture, still bears traces of its former glory.

As the main seat of the landgraves, the castle was a pre-eminent center of artistic endeavour where all of the fine arts were celebrated. It once echoed to the songs of Walther von der Vogelweide and inspired a number of epic poems by Wolfram von Eschenbach.

This was the setting of the fabled Battle of the Bards, a tale immortalized in Richard Wagner’s opera Tannhäuser. Wartburg Castle was also the home of Saint Elisabeth, still revered to this day. The Wartburg Festival of 1817, organised by the student fraternities, celebrated the achievements of Luther, the Reformation and the Battle of Leipzig. The main hall can hold over 300 people.

Wartburg Castle in Eisenach is the most visited Luther site in the world, attracting 350,000 visitors every year. Its mighty walls provided refuge for Martin Luther for almost a year after he was ostracized and excommunicated by Rome following the Diet of Worms (1521). This painting of Luther was rendered here during his lifetime.

It was here that he started translating the New Testament into German, laying the foundations for a standardized German language. One room in Wartburg Castle is dedicated solely to displaying Luther’s translated Bible and other Reformation-era documents.

The Luther Room – where Luther lived and worked during his time at the castle – has for centuries been a destination for countless pilgrims from around the world. The rooms where he worked, prayed and ate are beautifully preserved just as they were in Luther’s time here.

Wartburg also contained an impressive library, which Luther would have accessed while translating the Bible into German and setting the standardized German language that is still spoken and written today.

Wartburg Castle also contained a beautiful chapel that was built in the 1100s. Parts of mural paintings (above the head of the castle’s tour guide) from the 13th century are carefully preserved.

As we exited Wartburg Castle to board the bus for our next town, it is always nice to run into friends! Dr. David Mahsman and I finally connected in person as we were both leading tours through Germany at the same time. He and his wife Lois were able to join our group for dinner the next evening. Delight!

David and I first began working together as part of the WordRus ministry project to translate eight of my LWML Bible studies in German (among other languages). The Ukrainian and Russian translations are available for free download to share with your friends and missionaries in those countries!

I could have spent another week in Eisenach exploring the town and castle. This is definitely a must-visit place, especially to follow the footsteps of Martin Luther during the Reformation.